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United Nations Convention To Combat Desertification, 1994.



Region United Nations (UN)
Subject Aviation and Outer Space
Date of Adoption December 7th 1944
Place of Adoption Chicago, USA
Date of Entry into Force April 4th 1947
Date of Signature N/A
Date of Accession/Succession/Ratification May 1st 1964
Date of Deposition
Place of Deposit
Treaty Status
Declarations and Reservations
Domestic Legislation
Relevant Government Ministry

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION IN THOSE COUNTRIES EXPERIENCING SERIOUS DROUGHT AND/OR DESERTIFICATION, PARTICULARLY IN AFRICA

The Parties to this Convention,

Affirming that human beings in affected or threatened areas are at the centre of concerns to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,

Reflecting the urgent concern of the international community, including States and international organizations, about the adverse impacts of desertification and drought,

Aware that arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas together account for a significant proportion of the Earth’s land area and are the habitat and source of livelihood for a large segment of its population,

Acknowledging that desertification and drought are problems of global dimension in that they affect all regions of the world and that joint action of the international community is needed to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought,

Noting the high concentration of developing countries, notably the least developed countries, among those experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, and the particularly tragic consequences of these phenomena in Africa,

Noting also that desertification is caused by complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors,

Considering the impact of trade and relevant aspects of international economic relations on the ability of affected countries to combat desertification adequately,

Conscious that sustainable economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are priorities of affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, and are essential to meeting sustainability objectives,

Mindful that desertification and drought affect sustainable development through their interrelationships with important social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics,

Appreciating the significance of the past efforts and experience of States and international organizations in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, particularly in implementing the Plan of Action to Combat
Desertification which was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Desertification in 1977,

Realizing that, despite efforts in the past, progress in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought has not met expectations and that a new and more effective approach is needed at all levels within the framework of sustainable development,

Recognizing the validity and relevance of decisions adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, particularly of Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, which provide a basis for combating desertification,

Reaffirming in this light the commitments of developed countries as contained in paragraph 13 of chapter 33 of Agenda 21,

Recalling General Assembly resolution 47/188, particularly the priority in it prescribed for Africa, and all other relevant United Nations resolutions, decisions and programmes on desertification and drought, as well as relevant declarations by African countries and those from other regions,

Reaffirming the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which states, in its Principle 2, that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to
exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,

Recognizing that national Governments play a critical role in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and that progress in that respect depends on local implementation of action programmes in affected areas,

Recognizing also the importance and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought,

Recognizing further the importance of the provision to affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, of effective means, inter alia substantial financial resources, including new and additional funding, and access to technology, without which it will be difficult for them to implement fully their commitments under this Convention,

Expressing concern over the impact of desertification and drought on affected countries in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus,

Stressing the important role played by women in regions affected by desertification and/or drought, particularly in rural areas of developing countries, and the importance of ensuring the full participation of both men and women at all levels in programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,

Emphasizing the special role of non-governmental organizations and other major groups in programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,

Bearing in mind the relationship between desertification and other environmental problems of global dimension facing the international and national communities,

Bearing also in mind the contribution that combating desertification can make to achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity and other related environmental conventions,

Believing that strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought will be most effective if they are based on sound systematic observation and rigorous scientific knowledge and if they are continuously reevaluated,

Recognizing the urgent need to improve the effectiveness and coordination of international cooperation to facilitate the implementation of national plans and priorities,

Determined to take appropriate action in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought for the benefit of present and future generations,

Have agreed as follows:

  • PART I INTRODUCTION Article 1 Use of terms

    For the purposes of this Convention:

    (a) "desertification" means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities;

    (b) "combating desertification" includes activities which are part of the integrated development of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas for sustainable development which are aimed at:

    (i) prevention and/or reduction of land degradation;

    (ii) rehabilitation of partly degraded land; and

    (iii) reclamation of desertified land;

    (c) "drought" means the naturally occurring phenomenon that exists when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, causing serious hydrological imbalances that adversely affect land resource production systems;

    (d) "mitigating the effects of drought" means activities related to the prediction of drought and intended to reduce the vulnerability of society and natural systems to drought as it relates to combating desertification;

    (e) "land" means the terrestrial bio-productive system that comprises soil, vegetation, other biota, and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the system;

    (f) "land degradation" means reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as:

    (i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water;

    (ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and

    (iii) long-term loss of natural vegetation;

    (g) "arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas" means areas, other than polar and sub-polar regions, in which the ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration falls within the range from 0.05 to 0.65;

    (h) "affected areas" means arid, semi-arid and/or dry sub-humid areas affected or threatened by desertification;

    (i) "affected countries" means countries whose lands include, in whole or in part, affected areas;

    (j) "regional economic integration organization" means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to this Convention;

    (k) "developed country Parties" means developed country Parties and regional economic integration organizations constituted by developed countries.

  • Article 2 Objective

    1.     The  objective  of  this  Convention  is  to  combat  desertification  and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported  by  international  cooperation  and  partnership  arrangements,  in  the framework of an integrated approach which is consistent with Agenda 21, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas.

    2.     Achieving this objective will involve long-term integrated strategies that focus simultaneously, in affected areas, on improved productivity of land, and the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living conditions, in particular at the community level.

  • Article 3 Principles

    In order to achieve the objective of this Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following:

    (a) the Parties should ensure that decisions on the design and implementation of programmes to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought are taken with the participation of populations and local communities and that an enabling environment is created at higher levels to facilitate action at national and local levels;

    (b) the Parties should, in a spirit of international solidarity and partnership, improve cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, and better focus financial, human, organizational and technical resources where they are needed;

    (c) the Parties should develop, in a spirit of partnership, cooperation among all levels of government, communities, non-governmental organizations and landholders to establish a better understanding of the nature and value of land and scarce water resources in affected areas and to work towards their sustainable use; and

    (d) the Parties should take into full consideration the special needs and circumstances of affected developing country Parties, particularly the least developed among them.

  • PART II GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 4 General obligations

    1. The Parties shall implement their obligations under this Convention, individually or jointly, either through existing or prospective bilateral and multilateral arrangements or a combination thereof, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to coordinate efforts and develop a coherent long-term strategy at all levels.

    2. In pursuing the objective of this Convention, the Parties shall:

    (a) adopt an integrated approach addressing the physical, biological and socio-economic aspects of the processes of desertification and drought;

    (b) give due attention, within the relevant international and regional bodies, to the situation of affected developing country Parties with regard to international trade, marketing arrangements and debt with a view to establishing an enabling international economic environment conducive to the promotion of sustainable development;

    (c) integrate strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

    (d) promote cooperation among affected country Parties in the fields of environmental protection and the conservation of land and water resources, as they relate to desertification and drought;

    (e) strengthen subregional, regional and international cooperation;

    (f) cooperate within relevant intergovernmental organizations;

    (g) determine institutional mechanisms, if appropriate, keeping in mind the need to avoid duplication; and

    (h) promote the use of existing bilateral and multilateral financial mechanisms and arrangements that mobilize and channel substantial financial resources to affected developing country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.

    3. Affected developing country Parties are eligible for assistance in the implementation of the Convention

  • Article 5 Obligations of affected country Parties

    In addition to their obligations pursuant to article 4, affected country Parties undertake to:

    (a) give due priority to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and allocate adequate resources in accordance with their circumstances and capabilities;

    (b) establish strategies and priorities, within the framework of sustainable development plans and/or policies, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

    (c) address the underlying causes of desertification and pay special attention to the socio-economic factors contributing to desertification processes;

    (d) promote awareness and facilitate the participation of local populations, particularly women and youth, with the support of non- governmental organizations, in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; and

    (e) provide an enabling environment by strengthening, as appropriate, relevant existing legislation and, where they do not exist, enacting new laws and establishing long-term policies and action programmes.

  • Article 6 Obligations of developed country Parties

    In addition to their general obligations pursuant to article 4, developed country Parties undertake to:

    (a) actively support, as agreed, individually or jointly, the efforts of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, and the least developed countries, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

    (b) provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, effectively to develop and implement their own long-term plans and strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

    (c) promote the mobilization of new and additional funding pursuant to article 20, paragraph 2 (b);

    (d) encourage the mobilization of funding from the private sector and other non-governmental sources; and

    (e) promote and facilitate access by affected country Parties, particularly affected developing country Parties, to appropriate technology, knowledge and know-how.

  • Article 7 Priority for Africa

    In implementing this Convention, the Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties, in the light of the particular situation prevailing in that region, while not neglecting affected developing country Parties in other regions.

  • Article 8 Relationship with other conventions

    1. The Parties shall encourage the coordination of activities carried out under this Convention and, if they are Parties to them, under other relevant international agreements, particularly the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in order to derive maximum benefit from activities under each agreement while avoiding duplication of effort. The Parties shall encourage the conduct of joint programmes, particularly in the fields of research, training, systematic observation and information collection and exchange, to the extent that such activities may contribute to achieving the objectives of the agreements concerned.

    2. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from a bilateral, regional or international agreement into which it has entered prior to the entry into force of this Convention for it.

  • PART III ACTION PROGRAMMES, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND SUPPORTING MEASURES Section 1: Action programmes Article 9

    Basic approach

    1.     In  carrying  out  their  obligations  pursuant  to  article 5,  affected developing country Parties and any other affected country Party in the framework of  its  regional  implementation  annex  or,  otherwise,  that  has  notified  the Permanent Secretariat in writing of its intention to prepare a national action page programme,  shall,  as  appropriate,  prepare,  make  public  and  implement  national action programmes, utilizing and building, to the extent possible, on existing relevant  successful  plans  and  programmes,  and  subregional  and  regional  action programmes, as the central element of the strategy to combat desertification and mitigate  the  effects  of  drought.   Such  programmes  shall  be  updated  through  a continuing participatory process on the basis of lessons from field action, as well as the results of research.  The preparation of national action programmes shall be closely interlinked with other efforts to formulate national policies for sustainable development.

    2.     In the provision by developed country Parties of different forms of assistance under the terms of article 6, priority shall be given to supporting, as  agreed,  national,  subregional  and  regional  action  programmes  of  affected developing  country  Parties,  particularly  those  in  Africa,  either  directly  or through relevant multilateral organizations or both.

    3.     The Parties shall encourage organs, funds and programmes of the United Nations  system  and  other  relevant  intergovernmental  organizations,  academic institutions, the scientific community and non-governmental organizations in a position  to  cooperate,  in  accordance  with  their  mandates  and  capabilities,  to support the elaboration, implementation and follow-up of action programmes.

  • Article 10 National action programmes

    1. The purpose of national action programmes is to identify the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

    2. National action programmes shall specify the respective roles of government, local communities and land users and the resources available and needed. They shall, inter alia:

    (a) incorporate long-term strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, emphasize implementation and be integrated with national policies for sustainable development;

    (b) allow for modifications to be made in response to changing circumstances and be sufficiently flexible at the local level to cope with different socio-economic, biological and geo-physical conditions;

    (c) give particular attention to the implementation of preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded or which are only slightly degraded;

    (d) enhance national climatological, meteorological and hydrological capabilities and the means to provide for drought early warning;

    (e) promote policies and strengthen institutional frameworks which develop cooperation and coordination, in a spirit of partnership, between the donor community, governments at all levels, local populations and community groups, and facilitate access by local populations to appropriate information and technology;

    (f) provide for effective participation at the local, national and regional levels of non-governmental organizations and local populations, both women and men, particularly resource users, including farmers and pastoralists and their representative organizations, in policy planning, decision-making, and implementation and review of national action programmes; and

    (g) require regular review of, and progress reports on, their implementation.

    3. National action programmes may include, inter alia, some or all of the following measures to prepare for and mitigate the effects of drought:

    (a) establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of early warning systems, including local and national facilities and joint systems at the subregional and regional levels, and mechanisms for assisting environmentally displaced persons;

    (b) strengthening of drought preparedness and management, including drought contingency plans at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, which take into consideration seasonal to interannual climate predictions;

    (c) establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and marketing facilities, particularly in rural areas;

    (d) establishment of alternative livelihood projects that could provide incomes in drought prone areas; and

    (e) development of sustainable irrigation programmes for both crops and livestock.

    4. Taking into account the circumstances and requirements specific to each affected country Party, national action programmes include, as appropriate, inter alia, measures in some or all of the following priority fields as they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas and to their populations: promotion of alternative livelihoods and improvement of national economic environments with a view to strengthening programmes aimed at the eradication of poverty and at ensuring food security; demographic dynamics; sustainable management of natural resources; sustainable agricultural practices; development and efficient use of various energy sources; institutional and legal frameworks; strengthening of capabilities for assessment and systematic observation, including hydrological and meteorological services, and capacity building, education and public awareness.

  • Article 11 Subregional and regional action programmes

    Affected  country  Parties  shall  consult  and  cooperate  to  prepare,  as appropriate,  in  accordance  with  relevant  regional  implementation  annexes, subregional  and/or  regional  action  programmes  to  harmonize,  complement  and increase  the  efficiency  of  national  programmes.   The  provisions  of  article  10 shall  apply  mutatis  mutandis  to  subregional  and  regional  programmes.   Such cooperation may include agreed joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary  natural  resources,  scientific  and  technical  cooperation,  and strengthening of relevant institutions.

  • Article 12 International cooperation

    Affected  country  Parties,  in  collaboration  with  other  Parties  and  the international community, should cooperate to ensure the promotion of an enabling international  environment  in  the  implementation  of  the  Convention. Such cooperation should also cover fields of technology transfer as well as scientific research and development, information collection and dissemination and financial resources.

  • Article 13 Support for the elaboration and implementation of action programmes

    1. Measures to support action programmes pursuant to article 9 include, inter alia:

    (a) financial cooperation to provide predictability for action programmes, allowing for necessary long-term planning;

    (b) elaboration and use of cooperation mechanisms which better enable support at the local level, including action through non-governmental organizations, in order to promote the replicability of successful pilot programme activities where relevant;

    (c) increased flexibility in project design, funding and implementation in keeping with the experimental, iterative approach indicated for participatory action at the local community level; and

    (d) as appropriate, administrative and budgetary procedures that increase the efficiency of cooperation and of support programmes.

    2. In providing such support to affected developing country Parties, priority shall be given to African country Parties and to least developed country Parties.

  • Article 14 Coordination in the elaboration and implementation of action programmes

    1. The Parties shall work closely together, directly and through relevant intergovernmental organizations, in the elaboration and implementation of action programmes.

    2. The Parties shall develop operational mechanisms, particularly at the national and field levels, to ensure the fullest possible coordination among developed country Parties, developing country Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in order to avoid duplication, harmonize interventions and approaches, and maximize the impact of assistance. In affected developing country Parties, priority will be given to coordinating activities related to international cooperation in order to maximize the efficient use of resources, to ensure responsive assistance, and to facilitate the implementation of national action programmes and priorities under this Convention.

  • Article 15 Regional implementation annexes

    Elements  for  incorporation  in  action  programmes  shall  be  selected  and adapted to the socio-economic, geographical and climatic factors applicable to affected country Parties or regions, as well as to their level of development. Guidelines  for  the  preparation  of  action  programmes  and  their  exact  focus  and content  for  particular  subregions  and  regions  are  set  out  in  the  regional implementation annexes.

  • Section 2: Scientific and technical cooperation Article 16 Information collection, analysis and exchange

    The Parties agree, according to their respective capabilities, to integrate and coordinate the collection, analysis and exchange of relevant short term and long term data and information to ensure systematic observation of land degradation in affected areas and to understand better and assess the processes and effects of drought and desertification. This would help accomplish, inter alia, early warning and advance planning for periods of adverse climatic variation in a form suited for practical application by users at all levels, including especially local populations. To this end, they shall, as appropriate:

    (a) facilitate and strengthen the functioning of the global network of institutions and facilities for the collection, analysis and exchange of information, as well as for systematic observation at all levels, which shall, inter alia:

    (i) aim to use compatible standards and systems;

    (ii) encompass relevant data and stations, including in remote areas;

    (iii) use and disseminate modern technology for data collection, transmission and assessment on land degradation; and

    (iv) link national, subregional and regional data and information centres more closely with global information sources;

    (b) ensure that the collection, analysis and exchange of information address the needs of local communities and those of decision makers, with a view to resolving specific problems, and that local communities are involved in these activities;

    (c) support and further develop bilateral and multilateral programmes and projects aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information, including, inter alia, integrated sets of physical, biological, social and economic indicators;

    (d) make full use of the expertise of competent intergovernmental and non- governmental organizations, particularly to disseminate relevant information and experiences among target groups in different regions;

    (e) give full weight to the collection, analysis and exchange of socio- economic data, and their integration with physical and biological data;

    (f) exchange and make fully, openly and promptly available information from all publicly available sources relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought; and

    (g) subject to their respective national legislation and/or policies, exchange information on local and traditional knowledge, ensuring adequate protection for it and providing appropriate return from the benefits derived from it, on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms, to the local populations concerned.

  • Article 17 Research and development

    1. The Parties undertake, according to their respective capabilities, to promote technical and scientific cooperation in the fields of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought through appropriate national, subregional, regional and international institutions. To this end, they shall support research activities that:

    (a) contribute to increased knowledge of the processes leading to desertification and drought and the impact of, and distinction between, causal factors, both natural and human, with a view to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and achieving improved productivity as well as sustainable use and management of resources;

    (b) respond to well defined objectives, address the specific needs of local populations and lead to the identification and implementation of solutions that improve the living standards of people in affected areas;

    (c) protect, integrate, enhance and validate traditional and local knowledge, know-how and practices, ensuring, subject to their respective national legislation and/or policies, that the owners of that knowledge will directly benefit on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms from any commercial utilization of it or from any technological development derived from that knowledge;

    (d) develop and strengthen national, subregional and regional research capabilities in affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, including the development of local skills and the strengthening of appropriate capacities, especially in countries with a weak research base, giving particular attention to multidisciplinary and participative socio-economic research;

    (e) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification;

    (f) promote the conduct of joint research programmes between national, subregional, regional and international research organizations, in both the public and private sectors, for the development of improved, affordable and accessible technologies for sustainable development through effective participation of local populations and communities; and

    (g) enhance the availability of water resources in affected areas, by means of, inter alia, cloud-seeding.

    2. Research priorities for particular regions and subregions, reflecting different local conditions, should be included in action programmes. The Conference of the Parties shall review research priorities periodically on the advice of the Committee on Science and Technology.

     

  • Article 18 Transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology

    1. The Parties undertake, as mutually agreed and in accordance with their respective national legislation and/or policies, to promote, finance and/or facilitate the financing of the transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of environmentally sound, economically viable and socially acceptable technologies relevant to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. Such cooperation shall be conducted bilaterally or multilaterally, as appropriate, making full use of the expertise of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. The Parties shall, in particular:

    (a) fully utilize relevant existing national, subregional, regional and international information systems and clearing-houses for the dissemination of information on available technologies, their sources, their environmental risks and the broad terms under which they may be acquired;

    (b) facilitate access, in particular by affected developing country Parties, on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the need to protect intellectual property rights, to technologies most suitable to practical application for specific needs of local populations, paying special attention to the social, cultural, economic and environmental impact of such technology;

    (c) facilitate technology cooperation among affected country Parties through financial assistance or other appropriate means;

    (d) extend technology cooperation with affected developing country Parties, including, where relevant, joint ventures, especially to sectors which foster alternative livelihoods; and

    (e) take appropriate measures to create domestic market conditions and incentives, fiscal or otherwise, conducive to the development, transfer, acquisition and adaptation of suitable technology, knowledge, know-how and practices, including measures to ensure adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights.

    2. The Parties shall, according to their respective capabilities, and subject to their respective national legislation and/or policies, protect, promote and use in particular relevant traditional and local technology, knowledge, know-how and practices and, to that end, they undertake to:

    (a) make inventories of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices and their potential uses with the participation of local populations, and disseminate such information, where appropriate, in cooperation with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations;

    (b) ensure that such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices are adequately protected and that local populations benefit directly, on an equitable basis and as mutually agreed, from any commercial utilization of them or from any technological development derived therefrom;

    (c) encourage and actively support the improvement and dissemination of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices or of the development of new technology based on them; and

    (d) facilitate, as appropriate, the adaptation of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices to wide use and integrate them with modern technology, as appropriate.

  • Article 19 Capacity building, education and public awareness

    1. The Parties recognize the significance of capacity building -- that is to say, institution building, training and development of relevant local and national capacities -- in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. They shall promote, as appropriate, capacity-building:

    (a) through the full participation at all levels of local people, particularly at the local level, especially women and youth, with the cooperation of non-governmental and local organizations;

    (b) by strengthening training and research capacity at the national level in the field of desertification and drought;

    (c) by establishing and/or strengthening support and extension services to disseminate relevant technology methods and techniques more effectively, and by training field agents and members of rural organizations in participatory approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources;

    (d) by fostering the use and dissemination of the knowledge, know-how and practices of local people in technical cooperation programmes, wherever possible;

    (e) by adapting, where necessary, relevant environmentally sound technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism to modern socio-economic conditions;

    (f) by providing appropriate training and technology in the use of alternative energy sources, particularly renewable energy resources, aimed particularly at reducing dependence on wood for fuel;

    (g) through cooperation, as mutually agreed, to strengthen the capacity of affected developing country Parties to develop and implement programmes in the field of collection, analysis and exchange of information pursuant to article 16;

    (h) through innovative ways of promoting alternative livelihoods, including training in new skills;

    (i) by training of decision makers, managers, and personnel who are responsible for the collection and analysis of data for the dissemination and use of early warning information on drought conditions and for food production;

    (j) through more effective operation of existing national institutions and legal frameworks and, where necessary, creation of new ones, along with strengthening of strategic planning and management; and

    (k) by means of exchange visitor programmes to enhance capacity building in affected country Parties through a long-term, interactive process of learning and study.

    2. Affected developing country Parties shall conduct, in cooperation with other Parties and competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, an interdisciplinary review of available capacity and facilities at the local and national levels, and the potential for strengthening them.

    3. The Parties shall cooperate with each other and through competent intergovernmental organizations, as well as with non-governmental organizations, in undertaking and supporting public awareness and educational programmes in both affected and, where relevant, unaffected country Parties to promote understanding of the causes and effects of desertification and drought and of the importance of meeting the objective of this Convention. To that end, they shall:

    (a) organize awareness campaigns for the general public;

    (b) promote, on a permanent basis, access by the public to relevant information, and wide public participation in education and awareness activities;

    (c) encourage the establishment of associations that contribute to public awareness;

    (d) develop and exchange educational and public awareness material, where possible in local languages, exchange and second experts to train personnel of affected developing country Parties in carrying out relevant education and awareness programmes, and fully utilize relevant educational material available in competent international bodies;

    (e) assess educational needs in affected areas, elaborate appropriate school curricula and expand, as needed, educational and adult literacy programmes and opportunities for all, in particular for girls and women, on the identification, conservation and sustainable use and management of the natural resources of affected areas; and

    (f) develop interdisciplinary participatory programmes integrating desertification and drought awareness into educational systems and in non-formal, adult, distance and practical educational programmes.

    4. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and/or strengthen networks of regional education and training centres to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. These networks shall be coordinated by an institution created or designated for that purpose, in order to train scientific, technical and management personnel and to strengthen existing institutions responsible for education and training in affected country Parties, where appropriate, with a view to harmonizing programmes and to organizing exchanges of experience among them. These networks shall cooperate closely with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to avoid duplication of effort.

  • Article 20 Financial resources

    1. Given the central importance of financing to the achievement of the objective of the Convention, the Parties, taking into account their capabilities, shall make every effort to ensure that adequate financial resources are available for programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

    2. In this connection, developed country Parties, while giving priority to affected African country Parties without neglecting affected developing country Parties in other regions, in accordance with article 7, undertake to:

    (a) mobilize substantial financial resources, including grants and concessional loans, in order to support the implementation of programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

    (b) promote the mobilization of adequate, timely and predictable financial resources, including new and additional funding from the Global Environment Facility of the agreed incremental costs of those activities concerning desertification that relate to its four focal areas, in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Instrument establishing the Global Environment Facility;

    (c) facilitate through international cooperation the transfer of technology, knowledge and know-how; and

    (d) explore, in cooperation with affected developing country Parties, innovative methods and incentives for mobilizing and channelling resources, including those of foundations, non-governmental organizations and other private sector entities, particularly debt swaps and other innovative means which increase financing by reducing the external debt burden of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa.

    3. Affected developing country Parties, taking into account their capabilities, undertake to mobilize adequate financial resources for the implementation of their national action programmes.

    4. In mobilizing financial resources, the Parties shall seek full use and continued qualitative improvement of all national, bilateral and multilateral funding sources and mechanisms, using consortia, joint programmes and parallel financing, and shall seek to involve private sector funding sources and mechanisms, including those of non-governmental organizations. To this end, the Parties shall fully utilize the operational mechanisms developed pursuant to article 14.

    5. In order to mobilize the financial resources necessary for affected developing country Parties to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, the Parties shall:

    (a) rationalize and strengthen the management of resources already allocated for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought by using them more effectively and efficiently, assessing their successes and shortcomings, removing hindrances to their effective use and, where necessary, reorienting programmes in light of the integrated long-term approach adopted pursuant to this Convention;

    (b) give due priority and attention within the governing bodies of multilateral financial institutions, facilities and funds, including regional development banks and funds, to supporting affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, in activities which advance implementation of the Convention, notably action programmes they undertake in the framework of regional implementation annexes; and

    (c) examine ways in which regional and subregional cooperation can be strengthened to support efforts undertaken at the national level.

    6. Other Parties are encouraged to provide, on a voluntary basis, knowledge, know-how and techniques related to desertification and/or financial resources to affected developing country Parties.

    7. The full implementation by affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, of their obligations under the Convention will be greatly assisted by the fulfilment by developed country Parties of their obligations under the Convention, including in particular those regarding financial resources and transfer of technology. In fulfilling their obligations, developed country Parties should take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first priorities of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa.

  • Article 21 Financial mechanisms

    1. The Conference of the Parties shall promote the availability of financial mechanisms and shall encourage such mechanisms to seek to maximize the availability of funding for affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, to implement the Convention. To this end, the Conference of the Parties shall consider for adoption inter alia approaches and policies that:

    (a) facilitate the provision of necessary funding at the national, subregional, regional and global levels for activities pursuant to relevant provisions of the Convention;

    (b) promote multiple-source funding approaches, mechanisms and arrangements and their assessment, consistent with article 20;

    (c) provide on a regular basis, to interested Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitate coordination among them;

    (d) facilitate the establishment, as appropriate, of mechanisms, such as national desertification funds, including those involving the participation of non-governmental organizations, to channel financial resources rapidly and efficiently to the local level in affected developing country Parties; and

    (e) strengthen existing funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels, particularly in Africa, to support more effectively the implementation of the Convention.

    2. The Conference of the Parties shall also encourage the provision, through various mechanisms within the United Nations system and through multilateral financial institutions, of support at the national, subregional and regional levels to activities that enable developing country Parties to meet their obligations under the Convention.

    3. Affected developing country Parties shall utilize, and where necessary, establish and/or strengthen, national coordinating mechanisms, integrated in national development programmes, that would ensure the efficient use of all available financial resources. They shall also utilize participatory processes involving non-governmental organizations, local groups and the private sector, in raising funds, in elaborating as well as implementing programmes and in assuring access to funding by groups at the local level. These actions can be enhanced by improved coordination and flexible programming on the part of those providing assistance.

    4. In order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of existing financial mechanisms, a Global Mechanism to promote actions leading to the mobilization and channelling of substantial financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, on a grant basis, and/or on concessional or other terms, to affected developing country Parties, is hereby established. This Global Mechanism shall function under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties and be accountable to it.

    5. The Conference of the Parties shall identify, at its first ordinary session, an organization to house the Global Mechanism. The Conference of the Parties and the organization it has identified shall agree upon modalities for this Global Mechanism to ensure inter alia that such Mechanism:

    (a) identifies and draws up an inventory of relevant bilateral and multilateral cooperation programmes that are available to implement the Convention;

    (b) provides advice, on request, to Parties on innovative methods of financing and sources of financial assistance and on improving the coordination of cooperation activities at the national level;

    (c) provides interested Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non- governmental organizations with information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitate coordination among them; and

    (d) reports to the Conference of the Parties, beginning at its second ordinary session, on its activities.

    6. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, make appropriate arrangements with the organization it has identified to house the Global Mechanism for the administrative operations of such Mechanism, drawing to the extent possible on existing budgetary and human resources.

    7. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its third ordinary session, review the policies, operational modalities and activities of the Global Mechanism accountable to it pursuant to paragraph 4, taking into account the provisions of article 7. On the basis of this review, it shall consider and take appropriate action.

  • PART IV INSTITUTIONS Article 22

    Conference of the Parties

    1. A Conference of the Parties is hereby established.

    2. The Conference of the Parties is the supreme body of the Convention.

    It shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. In particular, it shall:

    (a) regularly review the implementation of the Convention and the functioning of its institutional arrangements in the light of the experience gained at the national, subregional, regional and international levels and on the basis of the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge;

    (b) promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the Parties, and determine the form and timetable for transmitting the information to be submitted pursuant to article 26, review the reports and make recommendations on them;

    (c) establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of the Convention;

    (d) review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies and provide guidance to them;

    (e) agree upon and adopt, by consensus, rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and any subsidiary bodies;

    (f) adopt amendments to the Convention pursuant to articles 30 and 31;

    (g) approve a programme and budget for its activities, including those of its subsidiary bodies, and undertake necessary arrangements for their financing;

    (h) as appropriate, seek the cooperation of, and utilize the services of and information provided by, competent bodies or agencies, whether national or international, intergovernmental or non-governmental;

    (i) promote and strengthen the relationship with other relevant conventions while avoiding duplication of effort; and

    (j) exercise such other functions as may be necessary for the achievement of the objective of the Convention.

    3. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, adopt its own rules of procedure, by consensus, which shall include decision-making procedures for matters not already covered by decision-making procedures stipulated in the Convention. Such procedures may include specified majorities required for the adoption of particular decisions.

    4. The first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim secretariat referred to in article 35 and shall take place not later than one year after the date of entry into force of the Convention. Unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties, the second, third and fourth ordinary sessions shall be held yearly, and thereafter, ordinary sessions shall be held every two years.

    5. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be decided either by the Conference of the Parties in ordinary session or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within three months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the Permanent Secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.

    6. At each ordinary session, the Conference of the Parties shall elect a Bureau. The structure and functions of the Bureau shall be determined in the rules of procedure. In appointing the Bureau, due regard shall be paid to the need to ensure equitable geographical distribution and adequate representation of affected country Parties, particularly those in Africa.

    7. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and any State member thereof or observers thereto not Party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by the Convention, and which has informed the Permanent Secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.

    8. The Conference of the Parties may request competent national and international organizations which have relevant expertise to provide it with information relevant to article 16, paragraph (g), article 17, paragraph (c) and article 18, paragraph 2(b).

  • Article 23 Permanent Secretariat

    1. A Permanent Secretariat is hereby established.

    2. The functions of the Permanent Secretariat shall be:

    (a) to make arrangements for sessions of the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and to provide them with services as required;

    (b) to compile and transmit reports submitted to it;

    (c) to facilitate assistance to affected developing country Parties, on request, particularly those in Africa, in the compilation and communication of information required under the Convention;

    (d) to coordinate its activities with the secretariats of other relevant international bodies and conventions;

    (e) to enter, under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions;

    (f) to prepare reports on the execution of its functions under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties; and

    (g) to perform such other secretariat functions as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties.

    3. The Conference of the Parties, at its first session, shall designate a Permanent Secretariat and make arrangements for its functioning.

  • Article 24 Committee on Science and Technology

    1. A Committee on Science and Technology is hereby established as a subsidiary body of the Conference of the Parties to provide it with information and advice on scientific and technological matters relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. The Committee shall meet in conjunction with the ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties and shall be multidisciplinary and open to the participation of all Parties. It shall be composed of government representatives competent in the relevant fields of expertise. The Conference of the Parties shall decide, at its first session, on the terms of reference of the Committee.

    2. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and maintain a roster of independent experts with expertise and experience in the relevant fields. The roster shall be based on nominations received in writing from the Parties, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation.

    3. The Conference of the Parties may, as necessary, appoint ad hoc panels to provide it, through the Committee, with information and advice on specific issues regarding the state of the art in fields of science and technology relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. These panels shall be composed of experts whose names are taken from the roster, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation. These experts shall have scientific backgrounds and field experience and shall be appointed by the Conference of the Parties on the recommendation of the Committee. The Conference of the Parties shall decide on the terms of reference and the modalities of work of these panels.

  • Article 25 Networking of institutions, agencies and bodies

    1. The Committee on Science and Technology shall, under the supervision of the Conference of the Parties, make provision for the undertaking of a survey and evaluation of the relevant existing networks, institutions, agencies and bodies willing to become units of a network. Such a network shall support the implementation of the Convention.

    2. On the basis of the results of the survey and evaluation referred to in paragraph 1, the Committee on Science and Technology shall make recommendations to the Conference of the Parties on ways and means to facilitate and strengthen networking of the units at the local, national and other levels, with a view to ensuring that the thematic needs set out in articles 16 to 19 are addressed.

    3. Taking into account these recommendations, the Conference of the Parties shall:

    (a) identify those national, subregional, regional and international units that are most appropriate for networking, and recommend operational procedures, and a time frame, for them; and

    (b) identify the units best suited to facilitating and strengthening such networking at all levels.

  • PART V PROCEDURES Article 26 Communication of information

    1. Each Party shall communicate to the Conference of the Parties for consideration at its ordinary sessions, through the Permanent Secretariat, reports on the measures which it has taken for the implementation of the Convention. The Conference of the Parties shall determine the timetable for submission and the format of such reports.

    2. Affected country Parties shall provide a description of the strategies established pursuant to article 5 and of any relevant information on their implementation.

    3. Affected country Parties which implement action programmes pursuant to articles 9 to 15 shall provide a detailed description of the programmes and of their implementation.

    4. Any group of affected country Parties may make a joint communication on measures taken at the subregional and/or regional levels in the framework of action programmes.

    5. Developed country Parties shall report on measures taken to assist in the preparation and implementation of action programmes, including information on the financial resources they have provided, or are providing, under the Convention.

    6. Information communicated pursuant to paragraphs 1 to 4 shall be transmitted by the Permanent Secretariat as soon as possible to the Conference of the Parties and to any relevant subsidiary body.

    7. The Conference of the Parties shall facilitate the provision to affected developing countries, particularly those in Africa, on request, of technical and financial support in compiling and communicating information in accordance with this article, as well as identifying the technical and financial needs associated with action programmes.

  • Article 27 Measures to resolve questions on implementation

    The Conference of the Parties shall consider and adopt procedures and institutional mechanisms for the resolution of questions that may arise with regard to the implementation of the Convention

  • Article 28 Settlement of disputes

    1. Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention through negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice.

    2. When ratifying, accepting, approving, or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:

    (a) arbitration in accordance with procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties in an annex as soon as  practicable;

    (b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

    3. A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedure referred to in paragraph 2 (a).

    4. A declaration made pursuant to paragraph 2 shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.

    5. The expiry of a declaration, a notice of revocation or a new declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before an arbitral tribunal or the International Court of Justice unless the Parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

    6. If the Parties to a dispute have not accepted the same or any procedure pursuant to paragraph 2 and if they have not been able to settle their dispute within twelve months following notification by one Party to another that a dispute exists between them, the dispute shall be submitted to conciliation at the request of any Party to the dispute, in accordance with procedures adopted by the Conference of the Parties in an annex as soon as practicable.

  • Article 29 Status of annexes

    1.     Annexes form an integral part of the Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to the Convention also constitutes a reference to its annexes.

    2.     The Parties shall interpret the provisions of the annexes in a manner that  is  in  conformity  with  their  rights  and  obligations  under  the  articles  of this Convention.

  • Article 30 Amendments to the Convention

    1. Any Party may propose amendments to the Convention.

    2. Amendments to the Convention shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the Parties by the Permanent Secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Permanent Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories to the Convention.

    3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to the Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The adopted amendment shall be communicated by the Permanent Secretariat to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for their ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of an amendment shall be deposited with the Depositary. An amendment adopted pursuant to paragraph 3 shall enter into force for those Parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the date of receipt by the Depositary of an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by at least two thirds of the Parties to the Convention which were Parties at the time of the adoption of the amendment.

    5. The amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits with the Depositary its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to the said amendment.

    6. For the purposes of this article and article 31, "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

  • Article 31 Adoption and amendment of annexes

    1. Any additional annex to the Convention and any amendment to an annex shall be proposed and adopted in accordance with the procedure for amendment of the Convention set forth in article 30, provided that, in adopting an additional regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex, the majority provided for in that article shall include a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties of the region concerned present and voting. The adoption or amendment of an annex shall be communicated by the Depositary to all Parties.

    2.   An annex, other than an additional regional implementation annex, or an amendment to an annex, other than an amendment to any regional implementation annex, that has been adopted in accordance with paragraph 1, shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date of communication by the Depositary to such Parties of the adoption of such annex or amendment, except for those Parties that have notified the Depositary in writing within that period of their non-acceptance of such annex or amendment. Such annex or amendment shall enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which withdrawal of such notification has been received by the Depositary.

    3.  An additional regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex that has been adopted in accordance with paragraph 1, shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date of the communication by the Depositary to such Parties of the adoption of such annex or amendment, except with respect to:

    (a) any Party that has notified the Depositary in writing, within such six month period, of its non-acceptance of that additional regional implementation annex or of the amendment to the regional implementation annex, in which case such annex or amendment shall enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non- acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which withdrawal of such notification has been received by the Depositary; and

    (b) any Party that has made a declaration with respect to additional regional implementation annexes or amendments to regional implementation annexes in accordance with article 34, paragraph 4, in which case any such annex or amendment shall enter into force for such a Party on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depositary of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with respect to such annex or amendment.

    4.  If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to the Convention, that annex or amendment to an annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention enters into force.

  • Article 32 Right to vote

    1.  Except as provided for in paragraph 2, each Party to the Convention shall have one vote.

    2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to the Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

  • PART VI FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article 33 Signature

    This Convention shall be opened for signature at Paris, on 14-15 October 1994, by States Members of the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall remain open for signature, thereafter, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 13 October 1995.

  • Article 34 Ratification, acceptance, approval and accession

    1.  The Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall be open for accession from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.

    2.  Any regional economic integration organization which becomes a Party to the Convention without any of its member States being a Party to the Convention shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention. Where one or more member States of such an organization are also Party to the Convention, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently.

    3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. They shall also promptly inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

    4.  In its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, any Party may declare that, with respect to it, any additional regional implementation annex or any amendment to any regional implementation annex shall enter into force only upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with respect thereto.

  • Article 35 Interim arrangements

    The secretariat functions referred to in article 23 will be carried out on an interim basis by the secretariat established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 47/188 of 22 December 1992, until the completion of the first session of the Conference of the Parties.

  • Article 36 Entry into force

    1. The Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    2.  For each State or regional economic integration organization ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    3.  For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization.

  • Article 37 Reservations

    No reservations may be made to this Convention.

  • Article 38 Withdrawal

    1.  At any time after three years from the date on which the Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depositary.

    2.  Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.

  • Article 39 Depositary

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of the Convention.

  • Article 40 Authentic texts

    The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

    IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed the present Convention.

    DONE AT Paris, this 17th day of June one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four.

  • ANNEX I REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ANNEX FOR AFRICA

    This Annex applies to Africa, in relation to each Party and in conformity with the Convention, in particular its article 7, for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in its arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas.

  • Article 1 Scope

    This Annex applies to Africa, in relation to each Party and in conformity with the Convention, in particular its article 7, for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in its arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas.

  • Article 2 Purpose

    The purpose of this Annex, at the national, subregional and regional levels in Africa and in the light of its particular conditions, is to:

    (a)   identify measures and arrangements, including the nature and processes of  assistance  provided  by  developed  country  Parties,  in  accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention;

    (b)   provide  for  the  efficient  and  practical  implementation  of  the Convention to address conditions specific to Africa; and

    (c)   promote processes and activities relating to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought within the  arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas of Africa.  

  • Article 3 Particular conditions of the African region

    In carrying out their obligations under the Convention, the Parties shall, in  the  implementation  of  this  Annex,  adopt  a  basic  approach  that  takes  into consideration the following particular conditions of Africa:

    (a)   the high proportion of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas;

    (b)   the substantial number of countries and populations adversely affected by desertification and by the frequent recurrence of severe drought;

    (c)   the large number of affected countries that are landlocked;  

    (d)     the widespread poverty prevalent in most affected countries, the large number  of  least  developed  countries  among  them,  and  their  need  for significant amounts of external assistance, in the form of grants and loans on concessional terms, to pursue their development objectives;

    (e)     the difficult socio-economic conditions, exacerbated by deteriorating and fluctuating terms of trade, external  indebtedness and political instability,  which  induce  internal,  regional  and  international migrations;

    (f)     the heavy reliance of populations on natural resources for subsistence which, compounded by the effects of demographic trends and factors, a weak  technological  base  and  unsustainable  production  practices, contributes to serious resource degradation;

    (g)     the  insufficient  institutional  and  legal  frameworks,  the  weak infrastructural base and the insufficient scientific, technical and educational  capacity,  leading  to  substantial  capacity  building requirements; and

    (h)     the central role of actions to combat desertification and/or mitigate the  effects  of  drought  in  the  national  development  priorities  of affected African countries.

  • Article 4 Commitments and obligations of African country Parties

    Commitments and obligations of African country Parties

    1.    In  accordance  with  their  respective  capabilities,  African  country Parties undertake to:

    (a)   adopt the combating of desertification and/or the mitigation of the effects of drought as a central strategy in their efforts to eradicate poverty;

    (b)   promote  regional  cooperation  and  integration,  in  a  spirit  of solidarity and partnership based on mutual interest, in programmes and activities to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought;

    (c)   rationalize  and  strengthen  existing  institutions  concerned  with desertification and drought and involve other existing institutions,  as  appropriate,  in  order  to  make  them  more  effective  and  to  ensure more efficient use of resources;

    (d)   promote  the  exchange  of  information  on  appropriate  technology, knowledge, know-how and practices between and among them; and

    (e)   develop  contingency  plans  for  mitigating  the  effects  of  drought  in  areas degraded by desertification and/or drought.  

    2.     Pursuant to the general and specific obligations set out in articles 4 and 5 of the Convention, affected African country Parties shall aim to:

    (a)   make  appropriate  financial  allocations  from  their  national  budgets consistent with national conditions and capabilities and reflecting  the   new   priority   Africa   has   accorded   to   the   phenomenon   of  desertification and/or drought;

    (b)   sustain and strengthen reforms currently in progress toward greater decentralization   and   resource   tenure   as   well   as   reinforce participation of local populations and communities; and

    (c)   identify and mobilize new and additional national financial resources,  and expand, as a matter of priority, existing national capabilities and facilities to mobilize domestic financial resources.

  • Article 5 Commitments and obligations of developed country Parties

    1.     In fulfilling their obligations pursuant to articles 4, 6 and 7 of the Convention,  developed  country  Parties  shall  give  priority  to  affected  African country Parties and, in this context, shall:

    (a)   assist them to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought  by,  inter  alia,  providing  and/or  facilitating  access  to  financial  and/or  other  resources,  and  promoting,  financing  and/or  facilitating the financing of the transfer, adaptation and access to  appropriate  environmental  technologies  and  know-how,  as  mutually  agreed and in accordance with national policies, taking into account  their adoption of poverty eradication as a central strategy;

    (b)   continue to allocate significant resources and/or increase resources  to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; and

    (c)   assist  them  in  strengthening  capacities  to  enable  them  to  improve  their  institutional  frameworks,  as  well  as  their  scientific  and technical  capabilities,  information  collection  and  analysis,  and research and development for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought.

    2.     Other country Parties may provide, on a voluntary basis, technology, knowledge and know-how relating to desertification and/or financial resources, to affected African country Parties.   The transfer of such knowledge, know-how and techniques is facilitated by international cooperation.  

  • Article 6 Strategic planning framework for sustainable development

    1.     National action programmes shall be a central and integral part of a broader process of formulating national policies for the sustainable development of affected African country Parties.

    2.     A consultative and participatory process involving appropriate levels of government, local populations, communities and non-governmental organizations shall be undertaken to provide guidance on a strategy with flexible planning to allow  maximum  participation  from  local  populations  and  communities. As appropriate, bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies may be involved in this process at the request of an affected African country Party.  

  • Article 7 Timetable for preparation of action programmes

    Pending entry into force of this Convention, the African country Parties, in cooperation with other members of the international community, as appropriate, shall,  to  the  extent  possible,  provisionally  apply  those  provisions  of  the Convention  relating  to  the  preparation  of  national,  subregional  and  regional action programmes.

  • Article 8 Content of national action programmes

    1.     Consistent with article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national  action  programmes  shall  emphasize  integrated  local  development programmes  for  affected  areas,  based  on  participatory  mechanisms  and  on integration  of  strategies  for  poverty  eradication  into  efforts  to  combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.   The programmes shall aim at  strengthening  the  capacity  of  local  authorities  and  ensuring  the  active involvement  of  local  populations,  communities  and  groups,  with  emphasis  on education  and  training,  mobilization  of  non-governmental  organizations  with proven expertise and strengthening of decentralized governmental structures.

    2.    National  action  programmes  shall,  as  appropriate,  include  the following general features:

    (a)   the use, in developing and implementing national action programmes, of past experiences in combating desertification and/or mitigating the  effects  of  drought,  taking  into  account  social,  economic  and ecological conditions;  

    (b)     the identification of factors contributing to desertification and/or drought and the resources and capacities available and required, and the  setting  up  of  appropriate  policies  and  institutional  and  other responses  and  measures  necessary  to  combat  those  phenomena  and/or mitigate their effects; and

    (c)     the increase in participation of local populations and communities, including women, farmers and pastoralists, and delegation to them of more responsibility for management.

    3.    National  action  programmes  shall  also,  as  appropriate,  include  the following:

    (a)    measures  to  improve  the  economic  environment  with  a  view  to eradicating poverty:

    (i)    increasing   incomes   and   employment   opportunities, especially for the poorest members of the community, by:

    -    developing markets for farm and livestock products;

    -    creating  financial  instruments  suited  to  local needs;

    -    encouraging diversification in agriculture and the setting-up of agricultural enterprises; and

    -    developing   economic   activities   of   a   para-agricultural or non-agricultural type;

    (ii)    improving  the  long-term  prospects  of  rural  economies  by the creation of:

    -    incentives for productive investment and access to the means of production; and

    -    price and tax policies and commercial practices that promote growth;

    (iii)    defining and applying population and migration policies to reduce population pressure on land; and

    (iv)    promoting  the  use  of  drought  resistant  crops  and  the application  of  integrated  dry-land  farming  systems  for food security purposes;

    (b)    measures to conserve natural resources:

    (i)    ensuring integrated and sustainable management of natural resources, including:

    -    agricultural land and pastoral land;

    -    vegetation cover and wildlife;

    -    forests;

    -    water resources; and

    -    biological diversity;  

    (ii)     training  with  regard  to,  and  strengthening,  public awareness  and  environmental  education  campaigns  and disseminating  knowledge  of  techniques  relating  to  the sustainable management of natural resources; and

    (iii)     ensuring  the  development  and  efficient  use  of  diverse energy  sources,  the  promotion  of  alternative  sources  of energy,  particularly  solar  energy,  wind  energy  and  bio-gas,   and   specific   arrangements   for   the   transfer, acquisition  and  adaptation  of  relevant  technology  to alleviate the pressure on fragile natural resources;

    (c)    measures to improve institutional organization:

    (i)    defining  the  roles  and  responsibilities  of  central government and local authorities within the framework of a land use planning policy;

    (ii)     encouraging a policy of active decentralization, devolving responsibility for management and decision-making to local authorities,   and   encouraging   initiatives   and   the assumption of responsibility by local communities and the  establishment of local structures; and

    (iii)    adjusting,   as   appropriate,   the   institutional   and regulatory  framework  of  natural  resource  management  to provide security of land tenure for local populations;

    (d)    measures to improve knowledge of desertification:

    (i)    promoting  research  and  the  collection,  processing  and exchange of information on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of desertification;

    (ii)     improving  national  capabilities  in  research  and  in  the collection,   processing,   exchange   and   analysis   of information  so  as  to  increase  understanding  and  to translate  the  results  of  the  analysis  into  operational terms; and

    (iii)    encouraging the medium and long term study of: -    socio-economic  and  cultural  trends  in  affected areas; -    qualitative  and  quantitative  trends  in  natural resources; and -    the interaction between climate and desertification; and

    (e)    measures to monitor and assess the effects of drought:

    (i)    developing strategies to evaluate the impacts of natural climate  variability  on  regional  drought  and desertification and/or to utilize predictions of climate variability  on  seasonal  to  interannual  time  scales  in efforts to mitigate the effects of drought;

    (ii)     improving early warning and response capacity, efficiently managing emergency relief and food aid, and improving food stocking  and  distribution  systems,  cattle  protection schemes and public works and alternative livelihoods for drought prone areas; and

    (iii)     monitoring and assessing ecological degradation to provide reliable  and  timely  information  on  the  process  and dynamics  of  resource  degradation  in  order  to  facilitate better policy formulations and responses.  

  • Article 9 Preparation of national action programmes and implementation and evaluation indicators

    Each affected African country Party shall designate an appropriate national coordinating body to function as a catalyst in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of its national action programme.  This coordinating body shall, in the light of article 3 and as appropriate:

    (a)   undertake an identification and review of actions, beginning with a locally driven consultation process, involving local populations and communities  and  with  the  cooperation  of  local  administrative authorities, developed country Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on the basis of initial consultations of  those concerned at the national level;

    (b)   identify  and  analyze  the  constraints,  needs  and  gaps  affecting development and sustainable land use and recommend practical measures  to avoid duplication by making full use of relevant ongoing efforts and promote implementation of results;

    (c)   facilitate,  design  and  formulate  project  activities  based  on interactive,   flexible   approaches   in   order   to   ensure   active  participation  of  the  population  in  affected  areas,  to  minimize  the negative  impact  of  such  activities,  and  to  identify  and  prioritize requirements for financial assistance and technical cooperation;

    (d)   establish pertinent, quantifiable and readily verifiable indicators to ensure the assessment and evaluation of national action programmes, which encompass actions in the short, medium and long terms, and of  the implementation of such programmes; and

    (e)   prepare progress reports on the implementation of the national action programmes.  

  • Article 10 Organizational framework of subregional action programmes

    1.     Pursuant to article 4 of the Convention, African country Parties shall cooperate in the preparation and implementation of subregional action programmes for central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa and, in that regard, may delegate   the   following   responsibilities   to   relevant   subregional intergovernmental organizations:

    (a)   acting as focal points for preparatory activities and coordinating the  implementation of the subregional action programmes;

    (b)   assisting  in  the  preparation  and  implementation  of  national  action  programmes;

    (c)   facilitating the exchange of information, experience and know-how as  well as providing advice on the review of national legislation; and

    (d)   any  other  responsibilities  relating  to  the  implementation  of  subregional action programmes.

    2.     Specialized  subregional  institutions  may  provide  support,  upon request, and/or be entrusted with the responsibility to coordinate activities in their respective fields of competence.

  • Article 11 Content and preparation of subregional action programmes

    Subregional  action  programmes  shall  focus  on  issues  that  are  better addressed  at  the  subregional  level.   They  shall  establish,  where  necessary, mechanisms for the management of shared natural resources.  Such mechanisms shall effectively handle transboundary problems associated with desertification and/or drought and shall provide support for the harmonious implementation of national action programmes.   Priority areas for subregional action programmes shall, as appropriate, focus on:

    (a)   joint  programmes  for  the  sustainable  management  of  transboundary natural resources through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, as  appropriate;

    (b)   coordination of programmes to develop alternative energy sources;

    (c)   cooperation in the management and control of pests as well as of plant and animal diseases;

    (d)   capacity building, education and public awareness activities that are  better carried out or supported at the subregional level;

    (e)     scientific   and   technical   cooperation,   particularly   in   the climatological,  meteorological  and  hydrological  fields,  including networking for data collection and assessment, information sharing and project monitoring, and coordination and prioritization of research and development activities;

    (f)     early warning systems and joint planning for mitigating the effects of drought, including measures to address the problems resulting from environmentally induced migrations;

    (g)     exploration  of  ways  of  sharing  experiences,  particularly  regarding participation of local populations and communities, and creation of an enabling environment for improved land use management and for use of appropriate technologies;

    (h)     strengthening  of  the  capacity  of  subregional  organizations  to coordinate and provide technical services, as well as establishment, reorientation   and   strengthening   of   subregional   centres   and institutions; and

    (i)     development of policies in fields, such as trade, which have impact upon  affected  areas  and  populations,  including  policies  for  the coordination   of   regional   marketing   regimes   and   for   common infrastructure.  

  • Article 12 Organizational framework of the regional action programme

    1.    Pursuant  to  article    11    of  the  Convention,  African  country  Parties shall  jointly  determine  the  procedures  for  preparing  and  implementing  the regional action programme.

    2.     The  Parties  may  provide  appropriate  support  to  relevant  African regional institutions and organizations to enable them to assist African country Parties to fulfil their responsibilities under the Convention.

  • Article 13 Content of the regional action programme

    The  regional  action  programme  includes  measures  relating  to  combating desertification  and/or  mitigating  the  effects  of  drought  in  the  following priority areas, as appropriate:

    (a)   development of regional cooperation and coordination of sub-regional action programmes for building regional consensus on key policy areas, including through regular consultations of sub-regional organizations;

    (b)   promotion  of  capacity  building  in  activities  which  are  better  implemented at the regional level;

    (c)     the seeking of solutions with the international community to global economic  and  social  issues  that  have  an  impact  on  affected  areas taking into account article 4, paragraph 2 (b) of the Convention;

    (d)     promotion  among  the  affected  country  Parties  of  Africa  and  its subregions,  as  well  as  with  other  affected  regions,  of  exchange  of information  and  appropriate  techniques,  technical  know-how  and relevant  experience;  promotion  of  scientific  and  technological cooperation particularly in the fields of climatology, meteorology, hydrology, water resource development and alternative energy sources; coordination  of  sub-regional  and  regional  research  activities;  and identification of regional priorities for research and development;

    (e)     coordination of networks for systematic observation and assessment and information  exchange,  as  well  as  their  integration  into  world  wide networks; and

    (f)     coordination of and reinforcement of sub-regional and regional early warning systems and drought contingency plans.

  • Article 14 Financial resources

    1.     Pursuant to article 20 of the Convention and article 4, paragraph 2, affected     African  country  Parties  shall  endeavour  to  provide  a  macroeconomic framework conducive to the mobilization of financial resources and shall develop policies and establish procedures to channel resources more effectively to local development  programmes,  including  through  non-governmental  organizations,  as appropriate.

    2.     Pursuant  to  article  21,  paragraphs  4  and  5  of  the  Convention,  the Parties agree to establish an inventory of sources of funding at the national, subregional,  regional  and  international  levels  to  ensure  the  rational  use  of existing  resources  and  to  identify  gaps  in  resource  allocation,  to  facilitate implementation  of  the  action  programmes.   The  inventory  shall  be  regularly reviewed and updated.

    3.     Consistent with article 7 of the Convention, the developed country Parties  shall  continue  to  allocate  significant  resources  and/or  increased resources  as  well  as  other  forms  of  assistance  to  affected  African  country Parties on the basis of partnership agreements and arrangements referred to in article 18,  giving,  inter  alia,  due  attention  to  matters  related  to  debt, international  trade  and  marketing  arrangements  in  accordance  with  article 4, paragraph 2 (b) of the Convention.    

  • Article 15 Financial Mechanisms

    1.     Consistent with article 7 of the Convention underscoring the priority to  affected  African  country  Parties  and  considering  the  particular  situation prevailing  in  this  region,  the  Parties  shall  pay  special  attention  to  the implementation in Africa of the provisions of article 21, paragraph 1 (d) and (e) of the Convention, notably by:

    (a)   facilitating  the  establishment  of  mechanisms,  such  as  national desertification  funds,  to  channel  financial  resources  to  the  local  level; and

    (b)   strengthening  existing  funds  and  financial  mechanisms  at  the  subregional and regional levels.

    2.     Consistent  with  articles     20  and     21  of  the  Convention,  the  Parties which  are  also  members  of  the  governing  bodies  of  relevant  regional  and subregional financial institutions, including the African Development Bank and the  African  Development  Fund,  shall  promote  efforts  to  give  due  priority  and attention to the activities of those institutions that advance the implementation of this Annex.

    3.     The Parties shall streamline, to the extent possible, procedures for channelling funds to affected African country Parties.  

  • Article 16 Technical assistance and cooperation

    The Parties undertake, in accordance with their respective capabilities, to rationalize  technical  assistance  to,  and  cooperation  with,  African  country Parties  with  a  view  to  increasing  project  and  programme  effectiveness  by, inter alia:

    (a)   limiting the costs of support measures and backstopping, especially overhead  costs;  in  any  case,  such  costs  shall  only  represent  an  appropriately low percentage of the total cost of the project so as  to maximize project efficiency;

    (b)   giving preference to the utilization of competent national experts or, where necessary, competent experts from within the subregion and/or  region, in project design, preparation and implementation, and to the  building of local expertise where it does not exist; and

    (c)   effectively  managing  and  coordinating,  as  well  as  efficiently utilizing, technical assistance to be provided.  

  • Article 17 Transfer, acquisition, adaptation and access to environmentally sound technology

    In  implementing  article  18  of  the  Convention  relating  to  transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology, the Parties undertake to give priority to African country Parties and, as necessary, to develop with them new models of partnership and cooperation with a view to strengthening capacity building  in  the  fields  of  scientific  research  and  development  and  information collection  and  dissemination  to  enable  them  to  implement  their  strategies  to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

  • Article 18 Coordination and partnership agreements

    1.     African country Parties shall coordinate the preparation, negotiation and implementation of national, subregional and regional action programmes.  They may  involve,  as  appropriate,  other  Parties  and  relevant  intergovernmental  and non-governmental organizations in this process.

    2.     The objectives of such coordination shall be to ensure that financial and technical cooperation is consistent with the Convention and to provide the necessary continuity in the use and administration of resources.

    3.     African country Parties shall organize consultative processes at the national, subregional and regional levels.  These consultative processes may:

    (a)   serve  as  a  forum  to  negotiate  and  conclude  partnership  agreements  based on national, subregional and regional action programmes; and

    (b)   specify the contribution of African country Parties and other members of the consultative groups to the programmes and identify priorities and agreements on implementation and evaluation indicators, as well as funding arrangements for implementation.

    4.     The  Permanent  Secretariat  may,  at  the  request  of  African  country Parties, pursuant to article 23 of the Convention, facilitate the convocation of such consultative processes by:

    (a)   providing  advice  on  the  organization  of  effective  consultative arrangements, drawing on experiences from other such arrangements;

    (b)   providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies concerning consultative meetings or processes, and encouraging their active involvement; and

    (c)   providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or  improving consultative arrangements.  

    5.     The subregional and regional coordinating bodies shall, inter alia:

    (a)   recommend appropriate adjustments to partnership agreements;

    (b)   monitor,  assess  and  report  on  the  implementation  of  the  agreed subregional and regional programmes; and

    (c)   aim to ensure efficient communication and cooperation among African country Parties.

    6.     Participation  in  the  consultative  groups  shall,  as  appropriate,  be open  to  Governments,  interested  groups  and  donors,  relevant  organs,  funds  and programmes  of  the  United  Nations  system,  relevant  subregional  and  regional organizations,  and  representatives  of  relevant  non-governmental  organizations. Participants  of  each  consultative  group  shall  determine  the  modalities  of  its management and operation.

    7.     Pursuant to article 14 of the Convention, developed country Parties are  encouraged  to  develop,  on  their  own  initiative,  an  informal  process  of consultation and coordination among themselves, at the national, subregional and regional levels, and, at the request of an affected African country Party or of an  appropriate  subregional  or  regional  organization,  to  participate  in  a national, subregional or regional consultative process that would evaluate and respond to assistance needs in order to facilitate implementation.  

  • Article 19 Follow-up arrangements

    Follow-up of this Annex shall be carried out by African country Parties in accordance with the Convention as follows:

    (a)   at the national level, by a mechanism the composition of which should be determined by each affected African country Party and which shall include representatives of local communities and shall function under the  supervision  of  the  national  coordinating  body  referred  to  in article 9;

    (b)   at  the  subregional  level,  by  a  multidisciplinary  scientific  and technical consultative committee, the composition and modalities of operation of which shall be determined by the African country Parties of the subregion concerned; and

    (c)   at the regional level, by mechanisms defined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community,  and  by  an  African  Scientific  and  Technical  Advisory Committee.

  • ANNEX II REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ANNEX FOR ASIA Article 1 Purpose

    Purpose The purpose of this Annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements for the effective implementation of the Convention in the affected country Parties of the Asian region in the light of its particular conditions.

  • Article 2 Particular conditions of the Asian region

    In carrying out their obligations under the Convention, the Parties shall, as appropriate, take into consideration the following particular conditions which apply in varying degrees to the affected country Parties of the region:

    (a)    the  high  proportion  of  areas  in  their  territories  affected  by,  or vulnerable to, desertification and drought and the broad diversity of these areas with regard to climate, topography, land use and socio- economic systems;

    (b)    the heavy pressure on natural resources for livelihoods;

    (c)    the existence of production systems, directly related to widespread poverty, leading to land degradation and to pressure on scarce water resources;

    (d)     the significant impact of conditions in the world economy and social problems  such  as  poverty,  poor  health  and  nutrition,  lack  of  food security, migration, displaced persons and demographic dynamics;

    (e)    their expanding, but still insufficient, capacity and institutional frameworks to deal with national desertification and drought problems; and

    (f)     their  need  for  international  cooperation  to  pursue  sustainable development  objectives  relating  to  combating  desertification  and mitigating the effects of drought.

  • Article 3 Framework for national action programmes

    1.     National  action  programmes  shall  be  an  integral  part  of  broader national policies for sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the region.

    2.    The affected country Parties shall, as appropriate, develop national action programmes pursuant to articles 9 to 11 of the Convention, paying special attention  to  article    10,  paragraph    2    (f).    As  appropriate,  bilateral  and multilateral cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the request of the affected country Party concerned.

  • Article 4 National action programmes

    1.     In preparing and implementing national action programmes, the affected country Parties of the region, consistent with their respective circumstances and policies, may, inter alia, as appropriate:

    (a)     designate  appropriate  bodies  responsible  for  the  preparation, coordination and implementation of their action programmes;

    (b)     involve  affected  populations,  including  local  communities,  in  the elaboration,   coordination   and   implementation   of   their   action programmes  through  a  locally  driven  consultative  process,  with  the cooperation  of  local  authorities  and  relevant  national  and  nongovernmental organizations;

    (c)     survey the state of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority areas for action;

    (d)     evaluate,  with  the  participation  of  affected  populations,  past  and current programmes for combating desertification and mitigating the effects  of  drought,  in  order  to  design  a  strategy  and  elaborate activities in their action programmes;

    (e)     prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information derived from the activities in subparagraphs (a) to (d);

    (f)     develop  and  utilize  procedures  and  benchmarks  for  evaluating implementation of their action programmes;

    (g)     promote the integrated management of drainage basins, the conservation of  soil  resources,  and  the  enhancement  and  efficient  use  of  water resources;

    (h)     strengthen and/or establish information, evaluation and follow up and early warning systems in regions prone to desertification and drought, taking  account  of  climatological,  meteorological,  hydrological, biological and other relevant factors; and

    (i)     formulate in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate arrangements supporting their action programmes.

    2.     Consistent with article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national  action  programmes  shall  emphasize  integrated  local  development programmes  for  affected  areas,  based  on  participatory  mechanisms  and  on  the integration  of  strategies  for  poverty  eradication  into  efforts  to  combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.   Sectoral measures in the action programmes shall be grouped in priority fields which take account of the broad diversity of affected areas in the region referred to in article 2 (a).

  • Article 5 Subregional and joint action programmes

    1.     Pursuant to article 11 of the Convention, affected country Parties in Asia  may  mutually  agree  to  consult  and  cooperate  with  other  Parties,  as appropriate, to prepare and implement subregional or joint action programmes, as appropriate,  in  order  to  complement,  and  increase  effectiveness  in  the implementation  of,  national  action  programmes.   In  either  case,  the  relevant Parties may jointly agree to entrust subregional, including bilateral or national organizations, or specialized institutions, with responsibilities relating to the preparation, coordination and implementation of programmes.  Such organizations or institutions may also act as focal points for the promotion and coordination of actions pursuant to articles 16 to 18 of the Convention.

    2.     In preparing and implementing subregional or joint action programmes, the affected country Parties of the region shall, inter alia, as appropriate:

    (a)   identify,  in  cooperation  with  national  institutions,  priorities     relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of     drought  which  can  better  be  met  by  such  programmes,  as  well  as     relevant  activities  which  could  be  effectively  carried  out  through     them;

    (b)   evaluate  the  operational  capacities  and  activities  of  relevant     regional, subregional and national institutions;

    (c)   assess  existing  programmes  relating  to  desertification  and  drought     among  all  or  some  parties  of  the  region  or  subregion  and  their     relationship with national action programmes; and

    (d)   formulate in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation,     including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate     bilateral and/or multilateral arrangements supporting the programmes.

    3.     Subregional  or  joint  action  programmes  may  include  agreed  joint programmes  for  the  sustainable  management  of  transboundary  natural  resources relating to desertification, priorities for coordination and other activities in the  fields  of  capacity  building,  scientific  and  technical  cooperation, particularly drought early warning systems and information sharing, and means of strengthening the relevant subregional and other organizations or institutions.

  • Article 6 Regional activities

    Regional  activities  for  the  enhancement  of  subregional  or  joint  action programmes  may  include,  inter  alia,  measures  to  strengthen  institutions  and mechanisms  for  coordination  and  cooperation  at  the  national,  subregional  and regional levels, and to promote the implementation of articles 16 to 19 of the Convention.  These activities may also include:

    (a)   promoting and strengthening technical cooperation networks;

    (b)   preparing  inventories  of  technologies,  knowledge,  know-how  and     practices, as well as traditional and local technologies and know-how,     and promoting their dissemination and use;

    (c)   evaluating the requirements for technology transfer and promoting the     adaptation and use of such technologies; and

    (d)   encouraging  public  awareness  programmes  and  promoting  capacity     building  at  all  levels,  strengthening  training,  research  and     development and building systems for human resource development.

  • Article 7 Financial resources and mechanisms

    1.    The   Parties   shall,   in   view   of   the   importance   of   combating desertification  and  mitigating  the  effects  of  drought  in  the  Asian  region, promote the mobilization of substantial financial resources and the availability of financial mechanisms, pursuant to articles 20 and 21 of the Convention.

    2.    In conformity with the Convention and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism  provided  for  in  article    8    and  in  accordance  with  their  national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly:

    (a)   adopt  measures  to  rationalize  and  strengthen  mechanisms  to  supply     funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving     specific results in action to combat desertification and mitigate the     effects of drought;

    (b)   identify international cooperation requirements in support of national     efforts, particularly financial, technical and technological; and

    (c)   promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilateral financial     cooperation institutions with a view to ensuring implementation of the     Convention.

    3.     The Parties shall streamline, to the extent possible, procedures for channelling funds to affected country Parties in the region.

  • Article 8 Cooperation and coordination mechanisms

    1.     Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated pursuant to article 4, paragraph 1 (a), and other Parties in the region, may, as appropriate, set up a mechanism for, inter alia, the following purposes:

    (a)   exchange of information, experience, knowledge and know-how;

    (b)   cooperation  and  coordination  of  actions,  including  bilateral  and     multilateral arrangements, at the subregional and regional levels;

    (c)   promotion  of  scientific,  technical,  technological  and  financial     cooperation pursuant to articles 5 to 7;

    (d)   identification of external cooperation requirements; and

    (e)   follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of action programmes.

    2.     Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated pursuant  to  article  4,  paragraph  1  (a),  and  other  Parties  in  the  region,  may also, as appropriate, consult and coordinate as regards the national, subregional and joint action programmes.  They may involve, as appropriate, other Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in this process.

    Such coordination shall, inter alia, seek to secure agreement on opportunities for  international  cooperation  in  accordance  with  articles 20 and 21 of  the Convention, enhance technical cooperation and channel resources so that they are used effectively.

    3.    Affected   country   Parties   of   the   region   shall   hold   periodic coordination  meetings,  and  the  Permanent  Secretariat  may,  at  their  request, pursuant  to  article    23    of  the  Convention,  facilitate  the  convocation  of  such coordination meetings by:

    (a)   providing  advice  on  the  organization  of  effective  coordination     arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements;

    (b)   providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies     concerning  coordination  meetings,  and  encouraging  their  active     involvement; and

    (c)   providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or     improving coordination processes.

  • ANNEX III REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ANNEX FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

    Article 1

    Purpose

    The  purpose  of  this  Annex  is  to  provide  general  guidelines  for  the implementation of the Convention in the Latin American and Caribbean region, in light of its particular conditions.

  • Article 2 Particular conditions of the Latin American and Caribbean region

    The Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, take into consideration the following particular conditions of the region:

    (a)   the  existence  of  broad  expanses  which  are  vulnerable  and  have  been     severely  affected  by  desertification  and/or  drought  and  in  which     diverse  characteristics  may  be  observed,  depending  on  the  area  in     which  they  occur;  this  cumulative  and  intensifying  process  has     negative social, cultural, economic and environmental effects which     are  all  the  more  serious  in  that  the  region  contains  one  of  the     largest resources of biological diversity in the world;

    (b)   the frequent use of unsustainable development practices in affected     areas as a result of complex interactions among physical, biological,     political,   social,   cultural   and   economic   factors,   including     international  economic  factors  such  as  external  indebtedness,     deteriorating terms of trade and trade practices which affect markets     for agricultural, fishery and forestry products; and

    (c)   a  sharp  drop  in  the  productivity  of  ecosystems  being  the  main     consequence  of  desertification  and  drought,  taking  the  form  of  a     decline in agricultural, livestock and forestry yields and a loss of     biological diversity; from the social point of view, the results are     impoverishment,  migration,  internal  population  movements,  and  the     deterioration of the quality of life; the region will therefore have     to  adopt  an  integrated  approach  to  problems  of  desertification  and     drought  by  promoting  sustainable  development  models  that  are  in     keeping with the environmental, economic and social situation in each     country.

  • Article 3 Action programmes

    1.     In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 9 to 11, and  in  accordance  with  their  national  development  policies,  affected  country Parties  of  the  region  shall,  as  appropriate,  prepare  and  implement  national action programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought as  an  integral  part  of  their  national  policies  for  sustainable  development. Subregional and regional programmes may be prepared and implemented in accordance with the requirements of the region.

    2.    In  the  preparation  of  their  national  action  programmes,  affected country  Parties  of  the  region  shall  pay  particular  attention  to  article    10, paragraph 2 (f) of the Convention.

  • Article 4 Content of national action programmes

    In the light of their respective situations, the affected country Parties of the region may take account, inter alia, of the following thematic issues in developing their national strategies for action to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought, pursuant to article 5 of the Convention:

    (a)   increasing  capacities,  education  and  public  awareness,  technical,     scientific and technological cooperation and financial resources and     mechanisms;

    (b)   eradicating poverty and improving the quality of human life;

    (c)   achieving food security and sustainable development and management of     agricultural, livestock-rearing, forestry and multipurpose activities;

    (d)   sustainable management of natural resources, especially the rational     management of drainage basins;

    (e)   sustainable management of natural resources in high-altitude areas;

    (f)   rational   management   and   conservation   of   soil   resources   and     exploitation and efficient use of water resources;

    (g)   formulation and application of emergency plans to mitigate the effects     of drought;

    (h)   strengthening   and/or   establishing   information,   evaluation   and     follow-up and early warning systems in areas prone to desertification     and  drought,  taking  account  of  climatological,  meteorological,     hydrological, biological, soil, economic and social factors;

    (i)   developing, managing and efficiently using diverse sources of energy,     including the promotion of alternative sources;

    (j)   conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in accordance with     the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

    (k)   consideration of demographic aspects related to desertification and     drought; and

    (l)   establishing  or  strengthening  institutional  and  legal  frameworks     permitting  application  of  the  Convention  and  aimed,  inter alia,  at     decentralizing  administrative  structures  and  functions  relating  to     desertification  and  drought,  with  the  participation  of  affected     communities and society in general.

  • Article 5 Technical, scientific and technological cooperation

    In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 16 to 18, and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 7, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly:

    (a)   promote  the  strengthening  of  technical  cooperation  networks  and     national,  subregional  and  regional  information  systems,  as  well  as     their   integration,   as   appropriate,   in   worldwide   sources   of     information;

    (b)   prepare  an  inventory  of  available  technologies  and  know-how  and     promote their dissemination and use;

    (c)   promote  the  use  of  traditional  technology,  knowledge,  know-how  and     practices pursuant to article 18, paragraph 2 (b), of the Convention;

    (d)   identify transfer of technology requirements; and

    (e)   promote the development, adaptation, adoption and transfer of relevant     existing and new environmentally sound technologies.

  • Article 6 Financial resources and mechanisms

    In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 20 and 21, on the  basis  of  the  coordinating  mechanism  provided  for  in  article 7 and  in accordance with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly:

    (a)   adopt  measures  to  rationalize  and  strengthen  mechanisms  to  supply     funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving     specific results in action to combat desertification and mitigate the     effects of drought;

    (b)   identify international cooperation requirements in support of national     efforts; and

    (c)   promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilateral financial     cooperation institutions with a view to ensuring implementation of the     Convention.

  • Article 7 Institutional framework

    1.    In order to give effect to this Annex, affected country Parties of the region shall:

    (a)   establish and/or strengthen national focal points to coordinate action to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; and

    (b)   set  up  a  mechanism  to  coordinate the national  focal  points  for  the following purposes:

    (i)    exchanges of information and experience;

    (ii)    coordination of activities at the subregional and regional levels;

    (iii)    promotion  of  technical,  scientific,  technological  and financial cooperation;

    (iv)    identification of external cooperation requirements; and

    (v)    follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of action programmes.

    2.    Affected   country   Parties   of   the   region   shall   hold   periodic coordination  meetings  and  the  Permanent  Secretariat  may,  at  their  request, pursuant  to  article    23    of  the  Convention,  facilitate  the  convocation  of  such coordination meetings, by:

    (a)   providing  advice  on  the  organization  of  effective  coordination arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements;

    (b)   providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies concerning  coordination  meetings,  and  encouraging  their  active     involvement; and

    (c)   providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.

  • ANNEX IV REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION ANNEX FOR THE NORTHERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Article Purpose The  purpose  of  this  Annex  is  to  provide  guidelines  and  arrangements necessary for the effective implementation of the Convention in affected country Parties  of  the  northern  Mediterranean  region  in  the  light  of  its  particular conditions.

  • Article 2 Particular conditions of the northern Mediterranean region

    The particular conditions of the northern Mediterranean region referred to in article    1 include:

    (a)    semi-arid  climatic  conditions  affecting  large  areas,  seasonal droughts, very high rainfall variability and sudden and high-intensity rainfall;

    (b)    poor and highly erodible soils, prone to develop surface crusts;

    (c)    uneven relief with steep slopes and very diversified landscapes;

    (d)    extensive forest coverage losses due to frequent wildfires;

    (e)    crisis  conditions  in  traditional  agriculture  with  associated  land abandonment  and  deterioration  of  soil  and  water  conservation structures;

    (f)     unsustainable  exploitation  of  water  resources  leading  to  serious environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinization and exhaustion of aquifers; and

    (g)     concentration  of  economic  activity  in  coastal  areas  as  a  result  of urban   growth,   industrial   activities,   tourism   and   irrigated agriculture.

  • Article 3 Strategic planning framework for sustainable development

    Strategic planning framework for sustainable development

    1.     National action programmes shall be a central and integral part of the strategic planning framework for sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean.

    2.    A consultative and participatory process, involving appropriate levels of  government,  local  communities  and  non-governmental  organizations,  shall  be undertaken  to  provide  guidance  on  a  strategy  with  flexible  planning  to  allow maximum  local  participation,  pursuant  to  article    10,  paragraph    2    (f)  of  the Convention.

  • Article 4 Obligation to prepare national action programmes and timetable

    Affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean region shall prepare national action programmes and, as appropriate, subregional, regional or joint action programmes. The preparation of such programmes shall be finalized as soon as practicable.

  • Article 5 Preparation and implementation of national action programmes

    In  preparing  and  implementing  national  action  programmes  pursuant  to articles 9 and 10 of the Convention, each affected country Party of the region shall, as appropriate:

    (a)   designate  appropriate  bodies  responsible  for  the  preparation, coordination and implementation of its programme;

    (b)   involve  affected  populations,  including  local  communities,  in  the     elaboration, coordination and implementation of the programme through     a locally driven consultative process, with the cooperation of local     authorities and relevant non-governmental organizations;

    (c)   survey the state of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority     areas for action;

    (d)   evaluate,  with  the  participation  of  affected  populations,  past  and     current  programmes  in  order  to  design  a  strategy  and  elaborate     activities in the action programme;

    (e)   prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information     gained through the activities in subparagraphs (a) to (d); and

    (f)   develop  and  utilize  procedures  and  benchmarks  for  monitoring  and     evaluating the implementation of the programme.

  • Article 6 Content of national action programmes

    Affected country Parties of the region may include, in their national action programmes, measures relating to:

    (a)   legislative, institutional and administrative areas;

    (b)   land use patterns, management of water resources, soil conservation,     forestry, agricultural activities and pasture and range management;

    (c)   management and conservation of wildlife and other forms of biological     diversity;

    (d)   protection against forest fires;

    (e)   promotion of alternative livelihoods; and

    (f)   research, training and public awareness.

  • Article 7 Subregional, regional and joint action programmes

    1.     Affected country Parties of the region may, in accordance with article 11 of the Convention, prepare and implement subregional and/or regional action programmes in order to complement and increase the efficiency of national action programmes.   Two or more affected country Parties of the region, may similarly agree to prepare a joint action programme between or among them.

    2.     The provisions of articles 5 and 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the preparation  and  implementation  of  subregional,  regional  and  joint  action programmes.  In addition, such programmes may include the conduct of research and development activities concerning selected ecosystems in affected areas.

    3.     In preparing and implementing subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate:

    (a)   identify,  in  cooperation  with  national  institutions,  national     objectives relating to desertification which can better be met by such     programmes and relevant activities which could be effectively carried     out through them;

    (b)   evaluate  the  operational  capacities  and  activities  of  relevant     regional, subregional and national institutions; and

    (c)   assess existing programmes relating to desertification among Parties     of the region and their relationship with national action programmes.

  • Article 8 Coordination of subregional, regional and joint action programmes

    Affected country Parties preparing a subregional, regional or joint action programme may establish a coordination committee composed of representatives of each  affected  country  Party  concerned  to  review  progress  in  combating desertification, harmonize national action programmes, make recommendations at the various stages of preparation and implementation of the subregional, regional or  joint  action  programme,  and  act  as  a  focal  point  for  the  promotion  and coordination  of  technical  cooperation  pursuant  to  articles 16 to 19 of  the Convention.

  • Article 9 Non-eligibility for financial assistance

    In implementing national, subregional, regional and joint action programmes, affected  developed  country  Parties  of  the  region  are  not  eligible  to  receive financial assistance under this Convention.

    • Article 10 Coordination with other subregions and regions

    Subregional, regional and joint action programmes in the nothern Mediterranean region may be prapared and implemented in cillaboration with those of other subregions or regions, particularly with those of the subregion of nothern Africa.