Newsletter on 14/12/2012

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Friday 14th December

Issue 48/2012

CASE OF THE WEEK

 

ADVISORY OPINION OF THE SUPREME COURT IN THE MATTER OF THE PRINCIPLE OF GENDER REPRESENTATION IN THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AND THE SENATE
By: Rose Wachuka & Samuel Ngure (Legal Researchers, Supreme Court of Kenya)

In the Matter of Attorney General in the matter of the Principle of Gender Representation in the National Assembly and the Senate and in the Matter of  Presidential Election Petitions after the first round of Presidential elections.
Advisory Opinion No. 2 of 2012
Supreme Court of Kenya
W.M Mutunga P.K Tunoi, J.B Ojwang, S.C.Wanjala and N.S Ndungu (SCJJ)
December 11, 2012.

Read the Full Decision


The Attorney General on behalf of the government sought an Advisory Opinion from the Supreme Court through a reference dated 8th October 2012.

Issues

  1. Whether Article 81 (b) as read with Article 27 (4), 27(6), 27(8), Article 96, Article 97, Article 98, Article 177 (1)(b), Article 116 and Article 125 of the Constitution requires progressive realisation of the enforcement of the one third gender rule or if it requires the same to be implemented during the general elections scheduled for 4th March 2013.

  2. Whether an unsuccessful candidate in the first round of presidential election under Article 136 of the Constitution or any other person is entitled to petition the Supreme Court to challenge the outcome of the first round of the said election under Article 140 or any other provision of the Constitution.

Constitutional Law – jurisdiction - Advisory opinion jurisdiction of the Supreme Court –whether the gender question in the electoral process concerned National Government exclusively and was unrelated to County Government - whether the Supreme Court  had the authority to issue an advisory opinion

Constitutional Law - Progressive realization of a right-what constitutes  Progressive realization of a right - the role of the legislature in enacting legislation for time-specified rights, crystallization of rights in the absence of specific legislation as contemplated by the Constitution - whether the gender principle in the Constitution should be realised immediately or progressively - whether an interpretation in favour of a progressive approach contradicts the principle of a holistic implementation of the Constitution - whether an interpretation calling for progressivity offends the principle of separation of powers because the Judiciary has no role on standard setting and implementation which are reserved for the Executive

Constitutional Law - Gender quotas - the implementation of soft and hard quotas - implementation of the one-third to two-thirds gender principle under the Constitution

Constitutional Law - interpretation of statutes - interpreting the word “shall” when used in different contexts within the Constitution - whether the word shall connotes a mandatory obligation – whether the general guiding principles in the Constitution should be interpreted in the same way as specific quantized rights under the Constitution.

Constitutional Law - Supreme Court of Kenya, the role of the Supreme Court as the guardian of public interest in constitutional governance

Constitutional Law - Presidential election petitions - the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in resolving disputes not covered under Article 140 of the Constitution - whether there are other categories of disputes arising in Presidential elections other than those envisaged under Article 140 of the Constitution - whether a dispute arising out of the first round of Presidential elections can be resolved by the Supreme Court and within 30 days in accordance with Article 138 (5) in time for the second round of Presidential elections


Held-

  1. As signaled in this Court’s first Advisory-Opinion application [In theMatter of the Interim Independent Electoral Commission as theApplicant, Sup.Ct. Const. Application No. 2 of 2011], an opinion will be given only in exceptional circumstances, when the various organs established under the Constitution are, for cause, unable to exercise their authority to resolve major governance issue; when the issues involved are weighty and of constitutional significance; and when the public interest in the matter is manifest.

  2. Only a truly deserving case will justify the Court’s Advisory Opinion, as questions amenable to ordinary litigation must be prosecuted in the normal manner; and the Supreme Court ought not to entertain matters which properly belong to first-instance-Court litigation

  3. Only by due deference to the assigned jurisdiction of the different Courts, will the Supreme Court rightly hold to its mandate prescribed in section 3(c) of the Supreme Court Act, 2011 (Act No. 7 of 2011), of developing rich jurisprudence that respects Kenya’s history and traditions and facilitates its social, economic and political  growth.

  4. The basic requirement for an application for an opinion is that it should, as contemplated by Article 163(6) of the Constitution, be seeking to unravel a legal uncertainty in such a manner as to promote the rule of law and the public interest.

  5. The Attorney-General’s request for an Advisory Opinion raises issues of great public importance. The forthcoming general elections are not only the most important since independence, but are complex and novel in many ways. The elections come in the context of the first progressive, public-welfare-oriented, historic Constitution which embodies the people’s hopes and aspirations. Not only are these elections one of the vital processes instituted under the Constitution, but they constitute the first act of establishing a whole set of permanent governance organs. Clearly, any ambivalence or uncertainty in the path of such crucial elections must, as a matter of public interest, be resolved in time: and the task of resolution rests, in the circumstances prevailing, with the Supreme Court, by its Advisory-Opinion jurisdiction.

  6. Progressive realisation connotes a phased out attainment of an identified goal.

  7. The expression progressive realisation is neither a stand-alone nor a technical phrase. It simply refers to the gradual or phased-out attainment of a goal, a human rights goal which by its very nature, cannot be achieved on its own, unless first, a certain set of supportive measures are taken by the State. The exact shape of such measures will vary, depending on the nature of the right in question, as well as the prevailing social, economic, cultural and political environment. Such supportive measures may involve legislative, policy or programme initiatives including affirmative action.

  8. Whether a right is to be realized “progressively” or “immediately” is not a self-evident question: it depends on factors such as the language used in the normative safeguard, or in the expression of principle; it depends on the mechanisms provided for attainment of gender-equity; the nature of the right in question; the mode of constitution of the public body in question e.g. appointive of elective; if elective, the mode and control process for the election); the identity and character of the players who introduce the candidates for appointment or election and on the manner of presenting candidature for election or nomination.

  9. The expression “progressive realization” as apprehended in the context of the human rights jurisprudence, would signify that there is no mandatory obligation resting upon the State to take particular measures, at a particular time, for the realization of the gender-equity principle, save where a time-frame is prescribed.

  10. It is not the classification of a right as economic, social, cultural, civil or political that should suit a particular gender-equity claim to the progressive mode of realization; it is the inherent nature of the right, that should determine its mode of realization.

  11. Article 81(b) of the Constitution standing as a general principle cannot replace the specific provisions of Articles 97 and 98, not having ripened into a specific, enforceable right as far as the composition of the National Assembly and senate are concerned. This is the burden of our opinion on this matter-that it cannot be enforced immediately.

  12. If the measures contemplated to ensure its crystallization into an enforceable right are not taken before the elections of 4 March 2013, then it is our opinion, Article 81(b) will not be applicable to the said elections. The effect is that Article 81(b) of the Constitution is amenable only to progressive realization – even though it is immediately applicable in the case of County Assemblies under Article 177.

  13. The Provision in Article 27(6) for the State to take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups presupposes open-ended schemes of decision making and programming, which can only be effected over a span of time. By accommodating such prolonged time-spans of action by the legislative and Executive branches, the Judiciary by no means negates the principle of separation of powers.

  14. Hard gender quotas such as may be prescribed, are immediately realizable whereas soft gender quotas as represented in Article 81(b) with regard to the National Assembly and Senate are for progressive realization.

  15. Bearing in mind the terms of Article 100 on promotion of representation of marginalised groups and of the Fifth Schedule prescribing time-frames for the enactment of required legislation, legislative measures for giving effect to the one-third-to-two-thirds gender principle, under Article 81(b) of the Constitution and in relation to the National Assembly and Senate, should be taken by 27 August, 2015.

  16. The word “shall” will translate to immediate command only where the task in question is a cut-and-dried one, executed as it is without further moulding or preparation, and where the subject is inherently disposable by action emanating from a single agency.

  17. The word “shall” may be used in a different context, to imply the broad obligation which is more institutionally spread-out, and which calls for a chain of  actions involving a plurality of agencies; when “shall” is used in this sense, it calls not for immediate action, but for the faithful and responsible discharge of a public obligation; in this sense, the word “shall” incorporates the element of management discretion on the part of the responsible agency or agencies.

  18. In the context of human rights, the word “shall” is perceived as an emphasis on the obligation to take appropriate action, in the course of the progressive realization of a right conferred by the Constitution.

  19. There are potential disputes from Presidential elections other than those expressly mentioned in Article 140 of the Constitution. A Presidential election, much like other elected-assembly elections, is not lodged in a single event; it is, in effect, a process set in a plurality of stages.

  20. Article 163(3) suggests, as we perceive it, that the Supreme Court was intended to adjudicate upon all such disputes as would arise from the Presidential election. We find no reason to presume that the framers of the Constitution intended that the Supreme Court should exercise original jurisdiction only in respect of a specific element, namely, disputes arising after the election while excluding those disputes which might arise during the conduct of the election.

  21. It is our unanimous opinion that the validity of the Presidential election is not for determination only after the administrative pronouncement of the final result; at any stage in the critical steps of the electoral process, the Supreme Court should entertain a dispute as to validity.

  22. Presidential-election disputes, in their whole range, should be impartially and expeditiously resolved by the Supreme Court as the ultimate judicial body, within practical time-lines to be read into Article 138(5); and in our unanimous opinion, in the event of a second round of election, the words “within thirty days after the previous election” should be read to mean thirty days from the date on which disputes in respect of the first round will have been resolved.

As per  W. Mutunga C J (Dissenting)

Read the Dissenting Decision


  1. Matters of who are people’s representatives in Parliament and the Senate are central to county governments. The Constitution and validity of these two houses of Parliament therefore will affect their ability to deliver on these key obligations to County Governments. The gender question is one that is quintessential to determining their validity. The issue of two-third gender principle in the elections to Parliament and the Senate is a matter “concerning county government.” So is the election of the President. Thus the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to hear the Reference by the Attorney General and deliver an Advisory Opinion.

  2. In interpreting the Constitution and developing jurisprudence, the Court will always take a purposive interpretation of the Constitution as guided by the Constitution itself.

  3. The obligation of the Supreme Court is to cultivate progressive indigenous jurisprudence- grown out of our own needs, without unthinking deference to that of our other jurisdictions and courts, however distinguished.

  4. There is no violation of the principle of separation of powers in the Supreme Court's rendering of this Advisory Opinion under Article 163 (6). The Court's role is clearly defined in the Constitution. There is no evidence that the Court in exercising its constitutional mandate in this Reference has in any way entered the constitutionally preserved mandates of the Executive and Parliament.

  5. Furthermore, the Supreme Court has power to declare Parliament unconstitutionally constituted. It is this Court's duty to defend the Constitution, and ensure that all bodies within it are constituted constitutionally and employ all powers donated by the People to it constitutionally.

  6. The Constitution's view to equality, as one of the values provided under the Constitution is not the traditional view of providing equality before the law. Equality is substantive, and involves undertaking certain measures, including affirmative action, to reverse negative positions that have been taken by society. Where such negative exclusions pertain to political and civil rights, the measures undertaken are immediate and not progressive.

  7. From article 27 of the Constitution, and from CEDAW, it is clear that disenfranchisement of the Kenyan women in the political arena is a form of discrimination. Kenyans, particularly women, when they voted for a new constitution, had in mind the continuous and consistent struggle for their equity and equality in all spheres of life.

  8. Article 177 (giving a formula for gender equality in county government) is a clear proof of the submission for immediate realization of the two-thirds gender principle. There is no reason that a Constitution that decrees non-discrimination would discriminate against women running for Parliament and the Senate. There is no constitutional basis for discrimination among women themselves as the consequence of the progressive realization of the two-thirds gender principle would entail. A Constitution does not subvert itself.  Deciding that women vying for county representation have rights under the Constitution while their counterparts vying for Parliament and the Senate are discriminated against would result in that unconstitutional position.

  9. The State has been implementing the principle as a matter of clear policy. Stakeholder convening and discussions on the two-thirds gender principle has always been about implementation and not interpretation. Parliament cannot then, by its silence, deprive women the right to equal representation. There is no reason to doubt the patriotism of the current Parliament that is fully aware of the constitutional consequences of refusing to legislate. In the event that Parliament fails to legislate, any of the elected houses that violate this principle will be unconstitutional and the election of that house shall be null and void.

  10. The immediate implementation of the two-thirds gender principle is reinforced by values of patriotism, equity, social justice, human rights, inclusiveness, equality and protection of the marginalized. Such values would be subverted by an interpretation of the provisions that accepts progressive realization of this principle.

 

SELECTED NOTICES FROM THE KENYA GAZETTE

 

Kenya Gazette Vol. CXIV -  No.124 Dated December 14,2012

The State Corporatons Act .
The Physical Planners Registration Act - Appointment.
The Media Act - Appointments.
The Registration of Titles Act - Issue of Provisional Certificates, etc.
The Registered Land Act - Issue of New Land Title Deeds, etc.
Probate and Administration.
The Physical Planning Act - Completion of Part
Development Plans.
The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act - Environmental Impact Assessment Study Reports.
The Companies Act - Winding-up, etc.
The Political Parties Act.
Notice of Motion .
Closure of Roads.
The Insurance Act - Business Insurance Transfer.
The Electric Power Act - Licence.
The Disposal of Uncollected Goods.
Change of Names.

SUPPLEMENT Nos. 187, 188, 189 and 190
Bills, 2012
The Constituencies Development Fund Bill, 2012.
The Civil Aviation Bill, 2012.
The International Interests in Aircraft Equipment Bill, 2012.

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 17704
THE STATE CORPORATIONS ACT
(Cap. 446)
THE KENYA FILM COMMISSION ORDER, 2005
(L. N. No. 10 of 2005)
APPOINTMENT

IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by paragraph 3 (2) of the Kenya Film Commission Order, 2005, the Minister for Information
and Communications appoints -

MICHAEL ONYANGO

to be a member of the Board of the Kenya Film Commission, for a period of three (3) years, with effect from the 1st October, 2012.

Dated the 26th November, 2012.

SAMUEL POGHISIO,
Minister for Information and Communications.

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 17706
THE MEDIA ACT
APPOINTMENT
IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by section 6 (1) (e) of the Media Act, 2007, the Director of Information appoints -

Muiru Ngugi (Dr.),
Rosemary Nyaole Kowuor (Dr.),

to be members of the Media Council of Kenya, for a period of three (3) years, with effect from the 3rd December, 2012.

Dated the 4th December, 2012.

OLEWE OWITI,
Director of Information.

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 17647
THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND
CO-ORDINATION ACT
(No. 8 of 1999)
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT
FOR THE PROPOSED SUCASA ATHI ESTATE ON PLOT L.R.
NO. 20282, MLOLONGO, MAVOKO-MACHAKOS COUNTY.

Pursuant to regulation 21 of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) regulations, the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) has received an Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for the implementation of the proposed Sucasa Athi Estate on Plot L.R. No. 20282, Mlolongo, Mavoko-Machakos County.

The Proponent (Sucasa at Mombasa Road Limited) of the proposed Sucasa Athi Estate is proposing to provide affordable shelter by constructing 905 housing units.

The anticipated impacts and proposed mitigation measures are set out in the gazette.

The full report of the proposed project is available for inspection during working hours at:

(a) Director General, NEMA, Popo Road, off Mombasa Road, P.O. Box 67839-00200, Nairobi.
(b) Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, NHIF Building, Community, P.O. Box 30521, Nairobi.
(c) County Director of Environment, Machakos.

NEMA invites members of the public to submit oral or written comments within thirty (30) days from the date of publication of this notice to the Director General, NEMA, to assist the Authority in the decision making process of the project.

B. M. LANGWEN,
For: Director General.
MR. 1066370

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 17648
THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND
CO-ORDINATION ACT
(No. 8 of 1999)
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT
FOR THE PROPOSED SUBDIVISION OF LAND AND
QUARRYING ACTIVITIES ON PLOT NO.1040/2 YANDO
LOCATION, KWALE COUNTY

Pursuant to regulation 21 of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) regulations, the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) has received an Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for the implementation of the proposed subdivision of land and Quarrying activities on plot No.1040/2 Yando Location, Kwale County.

The Proponent (Dopp Investment Limited) of the proposed project is proposing to subdivide the 246.86 hectares (610 acres) in 5-10 acres of plots, level the plots and service the plots then sell the plots to other developers and to also carry out quarry activities.

The anticipated impacts and proposed mitigation measures are set out in the gazette.

The full report of the proposed project is available for inspection during working hours at:
a) Director General, NEMA, Popo Road, off Mombasa Road, P.O. Box 67839-00200, Nairobi.
(b) Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, NHIF Building, Community, P.O. Box 30521,Nairobi.
(c) County Director of Environment, Kwale.

NEMA invites members of the public to submit oral or written comments within thirty (30) days from the date of publication of this notice to the Director General, NEMA, to assist the Authority in the decision making process of the project.

Z. O. OUMA,
For: Director General.
MR. 1066867

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 19004
THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND
CO-ORDINATION ACT
(No. 8 of 1999)
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT
FOR THE PROPOSED GOLF COURSE HOTEL (K) LIMITED
ALONG MKUNGU CLOSE, WESTLANDS, NAIROBI.

Pursuant to regulation 21 of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) regulations, the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) has received an Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for the implementation of the proposed Golf Course Hotel (K) Limited along Mkungu Close, Westlands, Nairobi.

The Proponent (Golf Course Hotel Kenya ltd) is proposing to construct a modern hotel consisting of twenty one (21) floors.

The anticipated impacts and proposed mitigation measures are set out in the gazette.

The full report of the proposed project is available for inspection during working hours at:

(a) Director General, NEMA, Popo Road, off Mombasa Road, P.O. Box 67839-00200, Nairobi.
(b) Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, NHIF Building, Community, P.O. Box 30521, Nairobi
(c) County Director of Environment, Nairobi County.

NEMA invites members of the public to submit oral or written comments within thirty (30) days from the date of publication of this notice to the Director General, NEMA, to assist the Authority in the decision making process of the project.

Z. O. OUMA,
For: Director General.
MR. 1066435

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 19005
THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND
CO-ORDINATION ACT
(No. 8 of 1999)
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AUTHORITY
NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC TO SUBMIT COMMENTS ON AN
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT
FOR THE PROPOSED WASTE OIL SITE IN MAZERAS, ON
PLOT NO. MIGUMOPATSA/MAZERAS/1020 KILIFI COUNTY

Pursuant to regulation 21 of Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) regulations, the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) has received an Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for the implementation of the proposed waste oil site in Mazeras, on plot no. Migumopatsa/Mazeras/1020 Kilifi County The Proponent (Patana Agencies) of the proposed project is proposing to put up a Waste Oil Site with six overhead metallic storage tanks, boundary wall and small administration office at Mazeras township, Kaliang’ombe area off the Mombasa – Nairobi Road, Kilifi County.

The anticipated impacts and proposed mitigation measures are set out in the gazette

The full report of the proposed project is available for inspection during working hours at:

(a) Director General, NEMA, Popo Road, off Mombasa Road, P.O. Box 67839-00200, Nairobi.
(b) Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, NHIF Building, Community, P.O. Box 30521, Nairobi
(c) County Director of Environment, Kilifi County.

NEMA invites members of the public to submit oral or written comments within thirty (30) days from the date of publication of this notice to the Director General, NEMA, to assist the Authority in the decision making process of the project.

B. M. LANGWEN,
For: Director General
MR/1209593

GAZETTE NOTICE NO. 19025
THE POLITICAL PARTIES ACT
(No. 11 of 2011)
NOTICE OF CHANGE OF LOCATION OF PARTY HEAD OFFICE, NAME
AND PARTY SYMBOL

IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by Section 20 (1) of the Political Parties Act, 2011, the Registrar of Political Parties gives notice that the following parties intend to change the location of their head offices, name and symbol:

Party Name

Name Change

Location

Symbol

Agano Party

 

Beaver House
1st Floor Room
2 & 3

 

Ford-Kenya

 

Simba House,
Gatundu
Crescent,
Kileleshwa

 

Muungano
Development
Movement

 

Muungano South B Sandi
Road Off Kapiti
Road

Two
Interlocking
Rings

Federal Party
Of Kenya

 

 

A Clenched
Fist

Dated the 4th December, 2012.

L. K. NDUNGU,
Registrar of Political Parties.

Special Issue Kenya Gazette Vol CXIV – No. 121 Dated December 10, 2012

GAZETTE NOTICE No. 17697
THE COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY ACT (Cap. 102)
COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO THE ACCIDENT INVOLVING AIRCRAFT HELICOPTER REGISTRATION NO. EUROCOPTER 5Y - CDT AS 350 B3
EXTENSION OF TIME

IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by section 4 of the Commissions of Inquiry Act, I, Mwai Kibaki, President and Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces of the Republic of Kenya, extend the period Within which the Commission of Inquiry appointed by me through Gazette Notices Nos. 9043 and 9044 of 2012, should report on its findings and recommendations, so as to require it to report on or before 15th January, 2013.
 
Dated the 10th December, 2012.

MWAI KIBAKI,
President.

GAZETTE NOTICE No. 17698
THE COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY ACT (Cap. 102)
COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO THE ETHNIC VIOLENCE IN TANA RIVER, TANA NORTH AND TANA DELTA DISTRICTS
EXTENSION OF TIME

IN EXERCISE of the powers conferred by section 4 of the Commissions of Inquiry Act, I, Mwai Kibaki, President and Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces of the Republic of Kenya, extend the period within which the Commission of Inquiry appointed by me through Gazette Notices Nos. 13554 and 13555 of 2012, should report on its findings and recommendations, so as to require it to report on or before 15th January, 2013.

Dated the 10th December, 2012.

MWAI KIBAKI,
President.

GAZETTE NOTICE No. 17699
THE CONSTITUTION OF KENYA
THE NATIONAL POLICE SERVICE COMMISSION ACT (No. 30 of 2011)
THE NATIONAL POLICE SERVICE ACT, 2011 THE NATIONAL POLICE SERVICE COMMISSION
SHORTLISTED CANDIDATES FOR THE POSITION OF DIRECTOR CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS

PURSUANT to the Constitution, the National Police Service Commission Act,2011 and the National Police Service Act, 2011, the National Police Service Commission has considered  the applications  for the said position, vetted, conducted interviews and has shortlisted three (3) candidates for the post of Director Criminal Investigations. The Commission has shortlisted the following candidates for the aforesaid position.

 

Name of Candidate      

County

% Marks           

        Ranking

Francis Ndegwa Muhoro

Laikipia

95.43

1

Gideon Muoki Kimilu

Makueni

84.52

2

Kaol Auma Mary

Kisumu

63.98

3

 

National Council for Law Reporting
Milimani Commercial Courts Building,
Ground Floor
P.O Box 10443 - 00100, Nairobi Kenya.
Tel: (254 020) 2712767, 2719231
Fax: (254 020) 2712694